Each communication tool has its own unique characteristics and costs.
Advertising can be used to build up a long-term image for a product (Coca-Cola ads) or trigger quick sales (a Sears ad for a weekend sale). Advertising can efficiently reach geographically dispersed buyers. Certain forms of advertising (TV) can require a large budget, whereas other forms (newspaper) do not. Just the presence of advertising might have an effect on sales: Consumers might believe that a heavily advertised brand must offer “good value.” Because of the many forms and uses of advertising, it is difficult to make generalizations.Yet the following qualities can be noted:
1. Pervasiveness – Advertising permits the seller to repeat a message many times. It also allows the buyer to receive and compare the messages of various competitors. Large-scale advertising says something positive about the seller’s size, power, and success.
2. Amplified expressiveness -Advertising provides opportunities for dramatizing the company and its products through the artful use of print, sound, and color.
3. Impersonality -The audience does not feel obligated to pay attention or respond to advertising. Advertising is a monologue in front of, not a dialogue with, the audience.
2. SALES PROMOTION
Companies use sales promotion tools—coupons, contests, premiums, and the like—to draw a stronger and quicker buyer response. Sales promotion can be used for short-run effects such as to highlight product offers and boost sagging sales. Sales promotion tools offer three distinctive benefits:
1. Communication -They gain attention and may lead the consumer to the product.
2. Incentive -They incorporate some concession, inducement, or contribution that gives value to the consumer.
3. Invitation -They include a distinct invitation to engage in the transaction now.
3. PUBLIC RELATIONS AND PUBLICITY
Marketers tend to underuse public relations, yet a well-thought-out program coordinated with the other communications-mix elements can be extremely effective. The appeal of public relations and publicity is based on three distinctive qualities:
1. High credibility – News stories and features are more authentic and credible to readers than ads.
2. Ability to catch buyers off guard- Public relations can reach prospects who prefer to avoid salespeople and advertisements.
3. Dramatization - Public relations has the potential for dramatizing a company or product.
4. EVENTS AND EXPERIENCES
There are many advantages to events and experiences:
1. Relevant- A well-chosen event or experience can be seen as highly relevant as the consumer gets personally involved.
2. Involving - Given their live, real-time quality, consumers can find events and experiences more actively engaging.
3. Implicit - Events are more of an indirect “soft-sell.”
5. DIRECT MARKETING
The many forms of direct marketing—direct mail, telemarketing, Internet marketing—share three distinctive characteristics. Direct marketing is:
1. Customized -The message can be prepared to appeal to the addressed individual.
2. Up-to-date- A message can be prepared very quickly.
3. Interactive - The message can be changed depending on the person’s response.
6. PERSONAL SELLING
Personal selling is the most effective tool at later stages of the buying process, particularly in building up buyer preference, conviction, and action. Personal selling has three distinctive qualities:
1. Personal interaction - Personal selling involves an immediate and interactive relationship between two or more persons. Each party is able to observe the other’s reactions.
2. Cultivation - Personal selling permits all kinds of relationships to spring up, ranging from a matter-of-fact selling relationship to a deep personal friendship.
3. Response - Personal selling makes the buyer feel under some obligation for having listened to the sales talk.
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